Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay on Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens - 3873 Words

Great Expectations may be read as a Bildungsroman because it charts the progress of the protagonist, Phillip Pirrip better known as Pip, from childhood to young adulthood. Great Expectations contains aspects of: Autobiography, Ancestry, Education, Desire, Social Conditions and Love. These are the themes of an English Bildungsroman. Traditionally a Bildungsroman contains a story which consists of the development of a character inside society. During this development the character clashes with his/her social background (class). The protagonist would have suffered from loss in their childhood and would eventually become accepted. This essay is going to discuss and show examples of these themes to show how the novel may fit into†¦show more content†¦Joe Gargery and her husband Joe; this shows that Pip has had a harsh start to his life. â€Å"Mrs. Joe Gargery who married the blacksmith†, Pip’s social hierarchy is very low because his sister’s husband is a blacksmith. Pip is going to be apprenticed to Joe, despite this he feels comfortable in his home. At the time he wasn’t aware of his social hierarchy and so he was happy of where he was. â€Å"Young Pip† is an innocent, humble and loving character, who has nothing going for him. This would make the reader instantly intrigued to him by wanting to know what will happen to him. However â€Å"Old Pip† is going to tell the story as the person who is changing and so may decide to tell us what he wants because he is likely to be biased. The reader may not feel as much in favour of Pip because he/she wouldn’t be sure if Pip is telling the truth. Dickens is able to create fear through vulnerability of Pip, for example when Pip steals pie for the convict. We are able to feel the fear and harshness and the changes of Pip’s life as he does. This enables the reader to feel more sy mpathy for Pip which supports the Bildungsroman framework. The countryside where Pip lives has been described with words like â€Å"savage† and â€Å"bleak† which reflect aggressive and cruelness to the reader. This would eventually gain more support in the reader for Pip because it empathises and echoes Pip’s hardship. Dickens has influenced all this by the Bildungsroman genre by showing thatShow MoreRelatedGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1113 Words   |  5 Pagesadventures that the male characters go on. This seems to be relevant in a lot of movies and books like the story Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. In Great Expectations there are multiple female characters like Estella, Biddy, and Miss Havisham who all play a large part in the main character, Pip’s life. One of the first that we meet the character Estella in Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations is when Pip goes to Miss Havisham’s to play with her. The two kids play the game beggar my neighbor when EstellaRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1347 Words   |  6 Pagespoor status of the economy, social mobility does not seem to be occurring at high rates, with the poor getting poorer and rich getting richer. Despite this, social mobility is alive and well, and has been for centuries. In his novel, Great Expectations, Charles Dickens voices the concerns of many that lived in Victorian England during the 19th century by promoting such a desire to live life in a more prosperous social class. One of the most fundamental and reoccurring themes in the novel is that ofRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1426 Words   |  6 Pages Twelve-year-old Charles dickens gets ready for bed after a long day at the blacking house. These Victorian-aged memories will provide him with many ideas for his highly acclaimed novel Great Expectations. Set in 1830 England, Great Expectations is a coming-of-age story about a common innocent boy named Pip and his road to becoming a gentleman through the influence of others. Pip is influenced both positively and negatively by Estella, Herbert, and Magwitch. Estella left a huge impression on PipRead MoreGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens984 Words   |  4 PagesCharles Dickens utilizes his life for inspiration for the protagonist Pip in his novel Great Expectations. They both struggle with their social standing. Dickens loved plays and theatre and therefore incorporated them into Pip’s life. Dickens died happy in the middle class and Pip died happy in the middle class. The connection Dickens makes with his life to Pip’s life is undeniable. If readers understand Dickens and his upbringing then readers can understand how and why he created Pip’s upbringingRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations943 Words   |  4 Pages This is true in many cases but none as much as in Great Expectations. In many ways the narrator/protagonist Pip is Charles Dickens in body and mind. While there are many differences between the story and Charles Dickens life there remains one constant. This constant is the way Pip as the narra tor feels, because these feelings are Dickens s own feelings about the life he lead. Since Great Expectations was written towards end of Charles Dickens life, he was wiser and able to make out the mistakesRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1375 Words   |  6 PagesGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens and The Talented Mr Ripley by Anthony Minghella present similar criticisms of society to a large extent. Both of these texts consider the criticisms of rich social contexts (wealth and status), societal morality (whether a society is good or not. Status [can lead to the wrong people being in a high position i.e. making bad decisions affecting the community/society] Appearance [society appears to be moral/good (if you’re from a higher status) {dickens criticisesRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1223 Words   |  5 PagesBeloved author Charles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812 in Portsmouth, England. Growing up in a life of poverty, his childhood hardshi ps provided the inspiration to write a myriad of classic novels including his 1861 seminole masterpiece, Great Expectations (â€Å"BBC History - Charles Dickens†). Great Expectations follows the life of an orphan named Pip, who’s perspective of the world is altered when he is attacked by an escaped convict in his parents’ graveyard in the town of Kent. Throughout hisRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens924 Words   |  4 Pagesa character driven novel, or a mix of the two. In order for a novel to be character driven, it must revolve more around the characters’ individual thoughts, feelings, and inner struggles, rather than around the quest of the story. Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens, is a character driven novel. While the story does have a plot, it is not contingent upon that plot, but rather is reliant upon its characters and their natures. This is evident from the beginning of the novel. From the opening ofRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1669 Words   |  7 PagesCharles Dickens He was one of England s greatest authors of the 1800 s, better known as the Victorian era. The various themes and ideas of that time are perfectly showcased in his many novels and short stories, such as Nicholas Nickelby, Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, A Tale of Two Cities, and A Christmas Carol. Much of the inspiration for these works came from the trials and conflicts that he dealt with in his own life. His volumes of fictional writing show the greatRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1017 Words   |  5 Pagesexperiencer is somewhere else absorbing knowledge of a different setting.This abstract adventure is seized by author Charles Dickens in Great Expectations. Great Expectations is historical fiction giving readers comprehension of the Victorian Era.Upon the reading, readers begin to catch on the intended purpose and its significance. A person who lived during the Victorian Era was Charles Dickens himself.He grew up during a time where differences in social class were to an extreme degree.Dickens went through

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Improving Quality of Teaching and Learning, Questioning and Explaining Free Essay Example, 2000 words

Effective questioning can help the teachers instill curiosity and a thirst to learn in students (Pagliaro, 2011). By asking questions and letting their students formulate and develop their answers, the teachers can help the students to develop their critical thinking and analytical skills. On the other hand, questioning also helps the teachers to assess the thought process and learning abilities of their students (Walsh and Sattes, 2011). This, in turn, helps the teachers in formulating effective strategies to encourage and motivate the specific students. Delivering a lecture in the class as guided by the lesson plan needs to be accompanied by the teacher s inputs and explanations. Explaining is a crucial part of the teaching activity as it is through explaining teachers are able to elucidate the lessons and keep the discussion within the boundaries of the subject (Trevor, 1998). Explaining involves teachers communications skills, knowledge and delivery style, which can lead to a be tter understanding of the subject by the students (Wolfe, 2006). In addition, additional resources like charts, graphs, graphics, videos and other audio-visual aids can help the teachers in explaining better (Overall, 2001) Assessment is the evaluation of the student s progress over a period of time and is undertaken in order to understand his or her specific needs and problem areas (Ahrenfelt and Watkin, 2006). We will write a custom essay sample on Improving Quality of Teaching and Learning, Questioning and Explaining or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Two Ways of Seeing a River (1883) Free Essays

This passage is excerpted from Mark Twain’s 1883 book Life on the Mississippi, in which he shares his experiences as a river steamboat pilot and explores the many facets of the great river. As you read, consider his masterful use of language as he reflects on his changing relationship with the river. Now when I had mastered the language of this water and had come to know every trifling feature that bordered the great river as familiarly as I knew the letters of the alphabet, I had made a valuable acquisition. We will write a custom essay sample on Two Ways of Seeing a River (1883) or any similar topic only for you Order Now But I had lost something, too. I had lost something which could never be restored to me while I lived. All the grace, the beauty, the poetry, had gone out of the majestic river! I still kept in mind a certain wonderful sunset which I witnessed when steamboating was new to me. A broad expanse of the river was turned to blood; in the middle distance the red hue brightened into gold, through which a solitary log came floating, black and conspicuous; in one place a long, slanting mark lay sparkling upon the water; in another the surface was broken by boiling, tumbling rings that were as many-tinted as an opal; where the ruddy flush was faintest was a smooth spot that was covered with graceful circles and radiating lines, ever so delicately traced; the shore on our left was densely wooded, and the somber shadow that fell from this forest was broken in one place by a long, ruffled trail that shone like silver; and high above the forest wall a clean-stemmed dead tree waved a single leafy bough that glowed like a flame in the unobstructed splendor that was flowing from the sun. There were graceful curves, reflected images, woody heights, soft distances, and over the whole scene, far and near, the dissolving lights drifted steadily, enriching it every passing moment with new marvels of coloring. I stood like one bewitched. I drank it in, in a speechless rapture. The world was new to me and I had never seen anything like this at home. But as I have said, a day came when I began to cease from noting the glories and the charms which the moon and the sun and the twilight wrought upon the river’s face; another day came when I ceased altogether to note them. Then, if that sunset scene had been repeated, I should have looked upon it without rapture and should have commented upon it inwardly after this fashion: â€Å"This sun means that we re going to have wind tomorrow; that floating log means that the river is rising, small thanks to it; that slanting mark on the water refers to a bluff reef which is going to kill somebody’s steamboat one of these nights, if it keeps on stretching out like that; those tumbling ‘boils’ show a dissolving bar and a changing channel there; the lines and circles in the slick water over yonder are a warning that that troublesome place is shoaling up dangerously; that silver streak in the shadow of the forest is the ‘break’ from a new snag and he has located himself in the very best place he could have found to fish for steamboats; that tall dead tree, with a single living. Two Ways of Seeing a River ranch, is not going to last long, and then how is a body ever going to get through this blind place at night without the friendly old landmark? † No, the romance and beauty were all gone from the river. All the value any feature of it had for me now was the amount of usefulness it could furnish toward compassing the safe piloting of a steamboat. Since those days, I have pitied doctors from my heart. What does the lovely flush in a beauty’s cheek mean to a doctor but a â€Å"break† that ripples above some deadly disease? Are not all her visible charms sown thick with what are to him the signs and symbols of hidden decay? Does he ever see her beauty at all, or doesn’t he simply view her professionally and comment upon her unwholesome condition all to himself? And doesn’t he sometimes wonder whether he has gained most or lost most by learning his trade? 1. What is Twain’s argument here? What is his claim? What are his reasons? How does he construct his essay to help the reader be persuaded by his claim? How does he draw connections between the ideas in the first two paragraphs and those in the third? 2. What is the purpose of Twain’s argument? To explore? Inform? Convince? Meditate or pray? Something else? 3. Twain is known for his beautiful, rich use of language. Find the phrases or images that are the most powerful to you. What tools of stylish language are he using? How do they help make his argument persuasive? How to cite Two Ways of Seeing a River (1883), Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Economics - Minimum Wage free essay sample

South Africa’s history is riddled with economic exploitation and government has continually tried to right the socio-economic wrongs of the past, through the use of various economic policies and labour legislation. One such legislation has been highly debated in recent months. The legislation in question governs the minimum labour wage for each of the respective economic sectors. According to Burda and Wyplosz (2013:124) â€Å"Minimum wages are the legal limits on how low wages can be. † In this essay the advantages and disadvantages of minimum wages will be discussed, with the South African agricultural sector as a case study. Burda and Wyplosz (2013:124). Illustrated above is the effect minimum wages have on the labour market. To be of any worth it is essential that the minimum wage Wmin is set above the wage that would be gained in another way (w), and which is higher than the wage set at market equilibrium that the individual would of accepted. The consequence is an employment level equal to Lmin; and unemployment level equal to (Lsmin – Lmin), which is greater than the level of unemployment in a state of collective bargaining (Burda and Wyplosz, 2013:124). Firms may choose not to lower the real wage rage as a counter measure to rising unemployment; this occurrence is called an efficiency wage. Firms may opt to pay higher wages in an attempt to increase the level of output and quality by workers, as well as to attract better job applicants (Burda and Wyplosz, 2013:124). Government sets the minimum wage level whereas an efficiency wage is determined and set by firms themselves. There are many advantages and disadvantages of implementing minimum wage legislation. Two of the main advantages are the following: firstly economic growth is motivated through the discouragement of labour-intensive industries (Burda and Wyplosz, 2013:124). Secondly minimum wages also reduce the amount of dependency on government by minimum-wage employees, which could lead to a decrease in tax, because less people now rely on social grants to survive. Ultimately the minimum wage aims to protect workers from exploitation. On the other hand the disadvantages of minimum wages have to be studied more closely. Minimum wages can result in an increase in the unemployment of unskilled workers as well as raise employment barriers. The demand for labour is directly affected by the minimum wage legislation; as a result there is an increase in the unemployment level of the unskilled labour force because of an increase in the minimum wage. The unskilled labour force is ultimately the group of people, the minimum wage aims to protect. Due to minimum wage increases, firms starts to invest more in capital and less in labour. This increase in capital investment means that firms spend money on expensive equipment instead of labour because it is seen as a better long-term investment. The investment in technologically advanced equipment also means that firms now have to employ skilled workers to operate the equipment, which ultimately also increases the cost of production. As a result the prices of goods increase, which causes an increase in the CPI (consumer price index), which is reflected as an increase in inflation (News 24, 2013). This increase in inflation contradicts what government intended the minimum wages to do, which is raise the standard of living of South Africa’s unemployed and blue collar workers. South African farmers in the wake of recent strikes and the raising of the minimum wage to R105 a day have started looking at options to replace labour (Cohen, 2013). The implementation of minimum wages has a direct effect on productivity, because it affects the price of the products produced for the consumer. The reason why price is crucial to productivity is because an increase in price results in a decrease in demand for that specific product because of substitution for a similar product. This decrease in demand for goods and services means that suppliers now have to reduce the quantity they produce thus decreasing productivity, and ultimately leading to the retrenchment of employees. It is believed that jobs losses in the agricultural sector could possibly grow to 200 000, despite the agricultural sector being seen as a crucial job creator (News 24, 2013). The rate of technological development in recent years means that machines are consistently becoming cheaper and more commercially available to all businesses. The volatility and inconsistency of South African labour laws, means that it has become more commercially sustainable to invest in capital whilst reducing investment in labour. This means that employers would rather purchase machinery instead of having to battle South Africa’s labour laws, in their bid to be an economically sustainable business. It has been reported that in the wake of the recent farmworker strikes, many farmers will be mechanising their operations or will be switching to less labour-intensive goods (Cohen, 2013). As a developing country South Africa must always look to be internationally competitive. The South African economy relies heavily on the export of agricultural products to developed countries. Therefore the consistent increase in minimum wages seriously endangers the employment of those workers who work in the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector employs many people and is a crucial job creator. But higher minimum wages means that South Africa is in danger of not being able to compete with countries on the international market. In order to ensure sustainable economic growth and job creation. Low inflation levels and financial confidence are needed. The increase in the cost of production as a result of an increase in the minimum wage level, directly affects the CPI and consequently inflation (News 24, 2013). Therefore a resultant increase in inflation because of an increase in production costs is not in anyway beneficial to long-term sustainable economic growth. When trade unions demand higher wages they more often then not fail to take into consideration non-wage compensation. These non-wage compensations often include things such as, free housing, transport and medical aid. In an attempt to counter increasing production costs as a result of increases in minimum wages, firms reduce the amount of non-wage compensation given to their employees. So essentially the workers are not better off. There is a common belief that the implementation of minimum wages stops the occurrence of wage discrimination. Unfortunately this is not always true, because as mentioned above minimum wages cause an increase in unemployment. This increase in unemployment as seen in the previously listed graph, means that there is an increase in the availability of unskilled labour (Burda and Wyplosz, 2013:124). Therefore firms are more likely to take advantage of the excess of unskilled workers, by employing workers below the minimum wage. In conclusion it can be said that minimum wage legislation is far from perfect, and despite its good intentions, it more often then not causes more damage than good. The South African government through its various social grants and unproductive labour laws have created a lazy society who is dependant on â€Å"free hand-outs†. It has become acceptable to try and improve your social position through violence instead of hard work. The minimum wage legislation in South Africa aims to treat the symptoms of a largely unskilled labour force and social inequality. By treating the symptoms, the causes of the social inequality and largely unskilled labour force are not addressed. By consistently increasing the monetary value of an unskilled worker, government indirectly decreases the monetary value of skilled workers. This situation takes the away the incentive for workers, to try improve their level of skill. Government must realise that the only way to decrease social inequality and increase employment, is to fight these problem at a grass roots level. Government should rather focus on improving education in order to raise the skills level of the entire labour force. Government should also make changes to the current labour laws, so that greater emphasis is based on the implementation of incentive/efficiency wages. Efficiency wages are more likely to improve unemployment and increase production, because firms are willing to pay more, if their production increases. In the end sadly the unemployed in South Africa are exploited through false promises in order to gain political favour. List Of References BURDA, M and WYPLOSZ, C, 2013. Macroeconomics: A European Text (6ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. COHEN, M, 2013. South Africa Raises Farmworkers’ Minimum Wage In Wake Of Strikes. Bloomberg. [Online]. Available: http://www. bloomberg. com/news/2013-02-04/south-africa-raises-farmworkers-minimum-wage-in-wake-of-strikes. html. [Accessed 10 April 2013]. NEWS 24,2013. Farm Job Cuts Could Grow To 200000. Fin 24. [Online]. Available: http://www. fin24. com/Economy/Farms-job-cuts-could-grow-to-200-000-20130210. [Accessed 10 April 2013]. NEWS 24,2013. Farm Minimum Wage A Double-Edged Sword. Fin 24. [Online]. Available: http://www. fin24. com/Economy/Farm-minimum-wage-a-double-edged-sword-20130204. [Accessed 10 April 2013]. NEWS 24,2013. Price Hikes ‘Threaten’ Food Security. Fin 24. [Online]. Available: http://www. fin24. com/Economy/Price-hikes-threaten-food-security-20130301. [Accessed 10 April 2013]. NEWS 24,2013. Rand Edges Lower On CPI Data. Fin 24. [Online]. Available:

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Jan. 1923 Invasion of the Ruhr Essay Example

Jan. 1923: Invasion of the Ruhr Paper Invasion of the Ruhr The Ruhr is one of Germany’s most valuable industrial and mining area. End 1922: Germany failed to pay reparations to France as part of TOV In response, the French occupied the Ruhr. Campaign of ‘passive resistance’ was Germany’s response and resulted in a decline in industrial productivity ‘Passive resistance’ affected Germany economy Weimar government still dedicated to maintain commitment to TOV o Reparation bill: US $32 billion Instead of raising taxes, gov borrowed heavily and printed new money Sparked greatest inflation in history o 1914: US$ =gt; 4. 2 marks 1919: US$ =gt; 8. marks 1923: US$ =gt; 25 billion marks German money was valueless causing enormous hardship †¢ Real wages declined, life-time savings wiped, people on fixed incomes †¢ This invasion should be considered against French fears about security. France had been increasingly concerned about security since the collapse of the Anglo-American guar antee that would have given the French support in the event of German attack. In addition, France had been unsuccessful in her attempts to partially dismember Germany. By 1921, Britain and the USA were retreating into isolation and removing themselves from the affairs of the continent. In Britain, there was growing sympathy towards the idea that Germany had been treated harshly and that she should be able to recover economically as means to promote European recovery. †¢ The reparations commission had determined in 1921 that Germany should pay 132 billion gold marks to the allied powers. The French were anxious to enforce the reparations settlement in full for two reasons: 1. To use reparations to pay their debts to the US. 2. They could continue to weaken Germany by collecting the reparations and thus limit the speed and extent of German economic recovery which could pose a serious threat to them in the future. The British attitude towards reparations was hesitant. As much as they needed the money to pay the USA but they were also aware that continued German economic weakness would limit the recovery of British trade. Britain believed also that if Germany was conciliated, she would slip into the Soviet orbit, something which Britain did not want especially aft er Rapallo. France wanted an excuse to demonstrate her hard -line approach towards Germany and the opportunity arose when Germany missed a delivery of timber as part of her payments. We will write a custom essay sample on Jan. 1923: Invasion of the Ruhr specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Jan. 1923: Invasion of the Ruhr specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Jan. 1923: Invasion of the Ruhr specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer So, on 11 January, 1923, French and Belgian troops invaded the Ruhr. †¢ †¢ The French object was to collect reparations through seizing the output of the mines and factories of the Ruhr and shipping them to France. However, the German workers refused to co-operate and went on passive resistance. †¢ The result was inflation. The Weimar government simply printed more money to support the workers to a point that paper money became worthless. †¢ Middle classes in Germany who had saved money were totally destroyed and demoralized since their savings became worthless. Many people lost faith in the democratic system and would turn later to extremists like Hitler. In fact, Hitler made his first attempt during these hard times. However, the breakthrough came with the appointment of Gustav Stresemann as Chancellor of Germany. He cancelled the passive resistance and announced that Germany would comply with her obligation as in Versailles. The French withdrew as their relations with Britain and the USA were sort of damaged and was now willing to reach an agreement with Germany over the crisis. †¢ Charles Dawes, a key player solved the crisis when he proposed the Dawes Plan. This plan allowed Germany to reschedule her reparations payments so that the total amount was reduced and the deadlines were extended. In order for the German economy to recover extensive foreign loss, largely from the United States, were arranged. In addition, much private American capital flowed into German businesses and German government bonds. The resolution of the Ruhr crisis was followed by the Locarno Treaty. Accordingly, Germany accepted her current borders with France and Belgium as permanent. Also, these borders were guaranteed by Britain and Italy. Also, as a result of Locarno, Germany entered the League of nations. However, Germany’s eastern borders had not been guaranteed. Britain refused to guarantee the countries to the east of Germany which gave Germany the impression that she could change the borders with little objection from the Allies. The spirit of Locarno improved the general atmosphere and later the Allies removed their troops from the left bank of the Rhine and the Allied commission to supervise German disarmament departed in 927. The spirit of Locarno was best exemplified in the Kellogg-Briand Pact.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Analysis of the use of music in advertising.

Analysis of the use of music in advertising. IntroductionEmotional PlaygroundMusic has been known for centuries to have a powerful effect on human responses. In the social science context, music is particularly known for its effectiveness in triggering moods and communicating nonverbally. Many marketing practitioners already accept this notion, given that music is increasingly used as a stimulus in the retail environment as well as in radio and television advertising. Music has been shown to affect consumer behaviours, particularly shopper behaviour (Milliman, 1986), as well as emotional responses (Kellaris and Kent, 1994). Marketers that playing music is in itself not enough, that music needs to be used to target groups in the market place, to differentiate from competitors and to maximise image rather than serving as a distraction. It is therefore not surprising that music has become a major component of consumer marketing, both at the point of purchase and in advertising (Bruner 1990). In this essay we will explore the role of music in advertising.AdvertisingSeidman (1981) reviewed the contributions of music to media productions (movies and educational films), concluding that cognitive and affective comprehension of stimuli can be influenced. Music is a complex chemistry of controllable elements (Bruner, 1990). Unfortunately, no definitive taxonomy of music elements has been developed. Time and pitch-related characteristics appear on almost all lists and also have some empirical confirmation (Kellaris and Kent, 1994). Though less clear, evidence also has been found for a third factor, musical texture (Bruner, 1990).Advertisers often deliberately try to convey and transfer underlying, yet unasserted, meanings to viewers. The view that an advertisement is a one-way communicative process is a narrow one since one also needs to consider the information processing responses of the receivers as they perceive and interpret messages and images in advertisements (Procter et al 2001). Designers of advertising me ssages expect viewers...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

FINAL EXAMINATION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

FINAL EXAMINATION - Essay Example Like in the case of an opening conversation a closing conversation also plays a very essential role. This is because a conversation cannot be referred to be effective if it comes to an abrupt ending without any kind of acknowledgement or even a small summarization of the topic of discussion. Self-Disclosure is defined as â€Å"a conscious, intentional technique in which clinicians share information about their lives outside the counselling relationship† (Simone, McCarthy, & Skay, 1998, p.174). The main guidelines are the communication skills which can be used to avoid any lacking information for the process. It is up to the counsellors to be direct and concise. Self disclosures need to be very straight forward without any wastage of time. It requires being clear to both the clients as well as the counsellors with details and effective information. Attraction theory: This theory is based on the external looks. The theory states that relations start on the basis of attraction and work based on the law of attraction. There is no space given to the attitudes as much as the looks and attraction levels. Relationship Rules theory: This theory was set down by Schimanoff in 1990. The theory states that all relationships have a set of rules which need to be followed in order for the relationship to work. These include various aspects of the relationship like prohibited, preferred or obligated behavior in different situations. Social Penetration theory: The social penetration theory states that as relationships develop, communication moves from relatively shallow, non – intimate levels to deeper, more personal ones (Altman & Taylor, 1973). Social Exchange/Equity theory: This theory explains how people feel about their relationships with the other person and this is mainly based on the balance of what one individual has put into the relationship when compared to what is got out of the relationship, the relationship that is actually deserved and finally